Baltimore received his undergraduate degree in chemistry from Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania (B.A., 1960), and went on to study animal virology at the Rockefeller Institute (now Rockefeller University) in New York City, where he obtained his doctorate in 1964, and at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Boston. He worked with Dulbecco at the Salk Institute in La Jolla, Calif. (1965-68), studying the mechanism of replication of the poliovirus.
Baltimore joined the faculty of MIT in 1968, accompanied by Alice Huang, a postdoctoral fellow who had worked on vesicular stomatitus virus (VSV) at the Salk Institute. In Boston, Baltimore and Huang, who had married, showed that VSV, an RNA virus, reproduced itself by means of an unusual enzyme (an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase) that copies RNA by a process not involving DNA.
Baltimore then turned his attention to two RNA tumour viruses--Rauscher murine leukemia virus and Rous sarcoma virus--to discover whether a similar enzyme was at work in their replication. It was through these experiments that he discovered reverse transcriptase. This discovery proved an exception to the "central dogma" of genetic theory, which states that the information encoded in genes always flows unidirectionally from DNA to RNA (and thence to proteins) and cannot be reversed. Since its discovery, reverse transcriptase has become an invaluable tool in recombinant DNA technology.
Baltimore became director of the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, Mass., in 1983 and in 1990 left to become president of Rockefeller University. In 1989 he figured prominently in a public dispute over a 1986 paper published in the journal Cell that he had coauthored while still at MIT. The coauthor of the article, Thereza Imanishi-Kari, was accused of falsifying data published in the paper. Baltimore, who was not included in charges of misconduct, stood behind Imanishi-Kari, although he did retract the article. Because of his involvement in the case, however, he was asked to resign as president of Rockefeller University, and in 1994 he returned to MIT. In 1996 a U.S. government panel cleared Imanishi-Kari of the charges of scientific misconduct.
Baltimore became president of the California Institute of Technology
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